Questions to Accompany Readings and Assignments



Readings and Assignment 1: Prepare a response to the questions below.  This is to be submitted at the beginning of class on January 16.


Leiper, Neil 1979 "The framework of tourism: towards a definition of tourism, tourist, and the tourist industry," Annals of Tourism Research 6(4) 390-407

  1. What are the three approaches to defining tourism that Leiper discusses?
  2. What is meant by a “systems approach”?
  3. For clarity, using the IUOTO definition (p. 393), what types of travelers are and are not included in the definition of “tourists”?  [Note the IUOTO has morphed into the World Tourism Organization].
  4. Again using the IUOTO definition, why would “excursionists” include travelers on cruise ships?  Is there a perspective which would suggest that they really are “tourists”?
  5. How is Leiper’s definition of tourism geographical?  Is the study of tourism fundamentally geographical?  How so?
  6. Of Leiper’s three “geographical elements” in which is geography the most important to understanding tourism?
  7. What is leisure?  How to tourism and leisure inter-relate?
  8. Leiper quotes the Australian Treasury (1977: 1212) thus: “The tourist industry is defined, not in terms of the production of particular types of goods and services”, but in terms of the circumstances in which goods and services are consumed.”  Are there other “industries” to which the same statement could be applied?
  9. What are Leiper’s six sectors of the tourism industry?


Pearce, D.G. 1979 “Toward a geography of tourism” Annals of Tourism Research 6(3) 245-272

  1. What does Pearce see as the six components of a strict “geography of tourism”?
  2. What expertise (of understanding and analysis) do you currently possess that you feel are important in addressing these components?


Hall, C.M. 2005 “Reconsidering the geography of tourism and contemporary mobility” Geographical Research 43(2) 125–139

  1. What role does Hall see for geography in the study of tourism?
  2. Circle the areas on Hall’s Figures 1 and 2 which would correspond to “tourism”.  Why did you include the specific areas you did and exclude the others?

If the focus on tourism is directed towards “mobility” what of Pearce’s (1979) components may become more dominant in a “geography of tourism”?  Which might be underplayed?




 Readings 2: Readings for Jan. 23.  Be prepared to respond to questions and be involved in discussion in class.


Plog, S.C. 2001 “Why destination markets rise and fall in popularity: an update of a Cornell Quarterly classic” Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly 42(3) 13-24

We will review Plog’s ideas in class but prepare yourself by ensuring you prepare by responding to the following:

  1. Familiarize yourself with the terminology in Plog’s Exhibit 1.
  2. What are the major characters of his psychocentrics/dependables and allocentrics/venturers?
  3. What are the implications of this characterization in terms of destination development?


Haywood, K.M. 1986 “Can the tourist area life cycle be made operational?” Tourism Management 127, 154-157

  1. Haywood outlines perhaps the most widely used theory of resort development, that of Butler (1980).  How does this mesh with Plog’s (2001) ideas?


Getz, D. 1992 “Tourism planning and destination lifecycle” Annals of Tourism Research 19, 752-770

Smith, R.A. 1992 “Beach resort evolution: implications for planning” Annals of Tourism Research 19, 304-322

  1. Getz used the case study of Niagara Falls and Smith uses Pattaya, Thailand to explore the evolution of tourist destinations.  What parallels can be drawn between the two destinations?  How does the use of a model aid in the comparison?
  2. How close does the case study described in Smith (1992) correspond to the models introduced by Plog and Butler?



Readings 3: Readings for Jan. 30.


Orth, U.R. and J. Turečková 2002 “Segmenting the tourism market using perceptual and attitudinal mapping” Agricultural Economics 48, 36-48

  1. Look at Figure 2 as a model for “market positioning”.
  2. Review the method of statistical analysis used—at least sufficiently to understand the basic purpose, approach and results so that you can explain Table 5.


Riley, P. 1988 “Road culture of international long-term budget travelers” Annals of Tourism Research 15, 313-328)

Lett, J.W. 1983 “Ludic and limnoid aspects of charter yacht tourism in the CaribbeanAnnals of Tourism Research 10, 35-56

  1. As Lett (1983) suggests, the terms “ludic”, “limnoid” and “communitas” are derived from the literature on anthropology.  Define these terms and list their characteristics.
  2. To what extent can tourism be seen as a pilgrimage? 
  3. What are the expectations of the two groups of travelers described in Riley (1988) and Lett (1983)?  Referring to the ideas of “ludic”, “limnoid” and “communitas”, how similar are these expectations?  Is all tourism characterized by these qualities?
  4. How do these expectations mesh with Maslow’s (1954) hierarchy of needs?
  5. To what extent is tourism “ritual”?  To what extent is it “ritual reversal”?  Other than those mentioned in the papers can you identify destinations characterized by their “ritual” and “ritual reversal” character?
  6. What sorts of impacts would the behaviour of the travelers in Riley (1988) and Lett (1983) have on the host community?



Readings 4: Readings for Feb. 6


Chacko, H.E. 1997 "Positioning a tourism destination to gain a competitive edge” Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research 1(2) 69-75

Lodge, C. 2002 “Success and failure: the brand stories of two countries” Brand Management 9(4) 372-384

Baker, B. n.d. “Places: the new power brands” (Tualatin, OR: Total Destination Management)

Butler, R.W. 1980 “The concept of a tourist area cycle of evolution: implications for management of resources” Canadian Geographer 24(1) 5-12


Readings 5: Readings for Feb. 13


McCool, S.F. and D.W. Lime 2001 “Tourism carrying capacity: tempting fantasy or useful reality?” Journal of Sustainable Tourism 9(5) 372-38

Russo, A.P. 2002 “The ‘vicious circle’ of tourism development in heritage cities” Annals of Tourism Research 29, 165-182



Readings 6: Readings for Feb. 27 (note: test 2 will be based on the readings by Var and Quayson (1985) and Archer (1982))


Nicholson-Lord, D. 1997 “The politics of travel: is tourism just colonialism in another guise?” The Nation (Oct. 8) []

Var, T. and J. Quayson 1985 “The multiplier impact of tourism in the Okanagan” Annals of Tourism Research 12, 497-514 [don’t worry about the technical description on the bottom 1/3 of p. 502 and most of p. 503]

Archer, B.H. 1982 “The value of multipliers and their policy implications” Tourism Management 3, 236-241



Readings 7: Readings for Mar. 6



Readings 8: Readings for Mar. 13


Pretes, M. 1995 “Postmodern tourism: the Santa Claus industry” Annals of Tourism Research 22(1) 1-15



Readings 9: Readings for Mar. 20


Cohen, E. 1988 “Authenticity and commoditization in tourism” Annals of Tourism Research 15, 371-386

1.      What is meant by:

a.       “commoditization”

b.      “staged authenticity”

c.      “emergent authenticity”

d.      the “Other”

e.      “experimental”, “existential” and “diversionary” tourists

2.      Is authenticity important for all tourists?  If not, for whom?

3.      Can you think of examples of authenticity being “negotiable”?

4.      Have you any experience as a tourist with staged performances?  What was your reaction?  To what extent are these performances satisfying—to tourist and performer?

5.      What is an “authentic” souvenir?



Readings 10: Readings for Mar. 27


Irandu, E.M. 2004 “The role of tourism in the conservation of cultural heritage in KenyaAsia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research 9(2) 133-150

Sirakaya, E. and S. Sonmez 2000 “Gender images in state tourism brochures: an overlooked area in socially responsible tourism marketing” Journal of Travel Research 38, 353-362

Erisman, H.M. 1983 “Tourism and cultural dependency in the West IndiesAnnals of Tourism Research 10, 337-361; Urry, J. 1992 “The tourist gaze ‘revisited’” American Behavioral Scientist 36(2) 172-186

Magablih. K. and A. Al-Shorman 2004 “Management and development of tourist sites in Jordan using geographic information system” Information Technology and Tourism 6, 287-295


Readings 11: Readings for Apr. 3


Henderson. J.C. 2000 “War as a tourist attraction: the case of VietnamInternational Journal of Tourism Research 2, 269-280

Graburn, N.H.H. 1983 “Tourism and prostitution” Annals of Tourism Research 10, 437-456

Ryan, C. and R. Kinder 1996 “Sex, tourism and sex tourism: fulfilling similar needs?” Tourism Management 17(7) 507-518

Herold, E., R. Garcia and T. DeMoya “Female tourists and beach boys: romance or sex tourism?” Annals of Tourism Research 28, 978–997


Readings 12: Readings for Apr. 10


Buckley, R. 1994 “A framework for ecotourism” Annals of Tourism Research 21, 661-669

Kline, J.D. 2001 Tourism and Natural Resource Management: A General Overview of Research and Issues General Technical Report PNW-GTR-506 (Portland, OR: United States Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station)

Gössling, S., C.B. Hansson, O. Hörstmeier and S. Saggel 2002 “Ecological footprint analysis as a tool to assess tourism sustainability” Ecological Economics 43, 199-/211