Questions to Accompany Readings
Readings and Assignment 1: Prepare a response to the questions below. This is to be submitted at the beginning
of class on January 16.
Leiper, Neil 1979 "The framework of tourism:
towards a definition of tourism, tourist, and the tourist industry," Annals
of Tourism Research 6(4)
- What are the three approaches to defining
tourism that Leiper discusses?
- What is meant by a “systems approach”?
- For clarity, using the IUOTO definition (p.
393), what types of travelers are and are not included in the definition
of “tourists”? [Note the IUOTO has
morphed into the World
- Again using the IUOTO definition, why would
“excursionists” include travelers on cruise ships? Is there a perspective which would
suggest that they really are “tourists”?
- How is Leiper’s
definition of tourism geographical?
Is the study of tourism fundamentally geographical? How so?
- Of Leiper’s three
“geographical elements” in which is geography the most important to
- What is leisure?
How to tourism and leisure inter-relate?
- Leiper quotes the Australian Treasury
(1977: 1212) thus: “The tourist industry is defined, not in terms of the
production of particular types of goods and services”, but in terms of the
circumstances in which goods and services are consumed.” Are there other “industries” to which
the same statement could be applied?
- What are Leiper’s six
sectors of the tourism industry?
D.G. 1979 “Toward a geography of tourism” Annals
of Tourism Research 6(3) 245-272
- What does Pearce see as the six
components of a strict “geography of tourism”?
- What expertise (of understanding
and analysis) do you currently possess that you feel are important in
addressing these components?
Hall, C.M. 2005 “Reconsidering the geography of
tourism and contemporary mobility” Geographical Research 43(2) 125–139
- What role does Hall see for geography in the study of tourism?
- Circle the
areas on Hall’s Figures 1 and 2 which would correspond to “tourism”. Why did you include the specific areas
you did and exclude the others?
focus on tourism is directed towards “mobility” what of Pearce’s (1979)
components may become more dominant in a “geography of
tourism”? Which might be underplayed?
Readings 2: Readings for Jan. 23. Be prepared to respond to questions and be
involved in discussion in class.
Plog, S.C. 2001 “Why destination markets rise
and fall in popularity: an update of a Cornell
Quarterly classic” Cornell Hotel and
Restaurant Administration Quarterly 42(3) 13-24
review Plog’s ideas in class but prepare yourself by
ensuring you prepare by responding to the following:
- Familiarize yourself with the
terminology in Plog’s Exhibit 1.
- What are the major characters
of his psychocentrics/dependables and allocentrics/venturers?
- What are the implications of
this characterization in terms of destination development?
K.M. 1986 “Can the tourist area life cycle be made operational?” Tourism Management 127, 154-157
- Haywood outlines perhaps the
most widely used theory of resort development, that of Butler (1980). How does this mesh with Plog’s (2001) ideas?
1992 “Tourism planning and destination lifecycle” Annals of Tourism Research 19, 752-770
1992 “Beach resort evolution: implications for planning” Annals of Tourism Research 19, 304-322
- Getz used the case study of Niagara Falls and Smith uses Pattaya, Thailand to explore the
evolution of tourist destinations.
What parallels can be drawn between the two destinations? How does the use of a model aid in the
- How close does the case study
described in Smith (1992) correspond to the models introduced by Plog and Butler?
Readings 3: Readings for Jan. 30.
U.R. and J. Turečková 2002 “Segmenting the
tourism market using perceptual and attitudinal mapping” Agricultural Economics 48, 36-48
- Look at Figure 2 as a model for
- Review the method of
statistical analysis used—at least sufficiently to understand the basic
purpose, approach and results so that you can explain Table 5.
1988 “Road culture of international long-term budget travelers” Annals of Tourism Research 15, 313-328)
J.W. 1983 “Ludic and limnoid
aspects of charter yacht tourism in the Caribbean”
Annals of Tourism Research 10, 35-56
- As Lett
(1983) suggests, the terms “ludic”, “limnoid” and “communitas”
are derived from the literature on anthropology. Define these terms and list their
- To what extent can tourism be
seen as a pilgrimage?
- What are the expectations of the
two groups of travelers described in Riley (1988) and Lett
(1983)? Referring to the ideas of “ludic”, “limnoid” and “communitas”, how similar are these expectations? Is all tourism characterized by these
- How do these expectations mesh
with Maslow’s (1954) hierarchy of needs?
- To what extent is tourism
“ritual”? To what extent is it
“ritual reversal”? Other than those
mentioned in the papers can you identify destinations characterized by
their “ritual” and “ritual reversal” character?
- What sorts of impacts would the
behaviour of the travelers in Riley (1988) and Lett (1983) have on the host community?
Readings 4: Readings for Feb. 6
Chacko, H.E. 1997 "Positioning a
tourism destination to gain a competitive edge” Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research 1(2) 69-75
Lodge, C. 2002 “Success and failure:
the brand stories of two countries” Brand
Management 9(4) 372-384
Baker, B. n.d.
“Places: the new power brands” (Tualatin,
OR: Total Destination Management)
Butler, R.W. 1980 “The concept of a tourist
area cycle of evolution: implications for management of resources” Canadian Geographer 24(1) 5-12
Readings 5: Readings for Feb. 13
S.F. and D.W. Lime 2001 “Tourism carrying capacity: tempting fantasy or useful
reality?” Journal of Sustainable Tourism
Russo, A.P. 2002 “The ‘vicious circle’ of tourism development in
heritage cities” Annals
of Tourism Research
Readings 6: Readings for Feb. 27
(note: test 2 will be based on the readings by Var
and Quayson (1985) and Archer (1982))
D. 1997 “The politics of travel: is
tourism just colonialism in another guise?” The Nation (Oct. 8) [http://www.emily.net/~schiller/pol_trvl.html]
and J. Quayson 1985 “The multiplier impact of tourism
in the Okanagan” Annals of Tourism
Research 12, 497-514 [don’t worry about the technical description on the
bottom 1/3 of p. 502 and most of p. 503]
B.H. 1982 “The value of multipliers and their policy implications” Tourism Management 3, 236-241
Readings 7: Readings for Mar. 6
Readings 8: Readings for Mar. 13
M. 1995 “Postmodern tourism: the Santa Claus industry” Annals of Tourism Research 22(1) 1-15
Readings 9: Readings for Mar. 20
1988 “Authenticity and commoditization in tourism” Annals of Tourism Research 15, 371-386
1. What is meant by:
b. “staged authenticity”
c. “emergent authenticity”
d. the “Other”
e. “experimental”, “existential” and
2. Is authenticity important for all
tourists? If not, for whom?
3. Can you think of examples of
authenticity being “negotiable”?
4. Have you any experience as a tourist
with staged performances? What was your
reaction? To what extent are these
performances satisfying—to tourist and performer?
5. What is an “authentic” souvenir?
Readings 10: Readings for Mar. 27
Irandu, E.M. 2004 “The role of tourism in
the conservation of cultural heritage in Kenya”
Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research
Sirakaya, E. and S. Sonmez
2000 “Gender images in state tourism brochures: an overlooked area in socially
responsible tourism marketing” Journal of Travel Research 38, 353-362
Erisman, H.M. 1983 “Tourism and cultural
dependency in the West Indies” Annals of Tourism Research 10, 337-361; Urry, J. 1992 “The
tourist gaze ‘revisited’” American Behavioral Scientist 36(2)
Magablih. K. and A. Al-Shorman 2004 “Management and development of tourist sites
using geographic information system” Information
Technology and Tourism 6, 287-295
Readings 11: Readings for Apr. 3
Henderson. J.C. 2000 “War as a tourist
attraction: the case of Vietnam”
International Journal of Tourism Research
Graburn, N.H.H. 1983 “Tourism and
prostitution” Annals of Tourism Research 10,
Ryan, C. and R. Kinder 1996 “Sex,
tourism and sex tourism: fulfilling similar needs?” Tourism Management 17(7) 507-518
Herold, E., R. Garcia and T. DeMoya
“Female tourists and beach boys: romance or sex tourism?” Annals of Tourism Research 28, 978–997
Readings 12: Readings for Apr. 10
1994 “A framework for ecotourism” Annals
of Tourism Research 21, 661-669
2001 Tourism and Natural Resource Management: A General Overview of Research
and Issues General Technical Report PNW-GTR-506 (Portland,
OR: United States
Forest Service, Pacific
Northwest Research Station)
Gössling, S., C.B. Hansson, O. Hörstmeier
and S. Saggel 2002 “Ecological footprint analysis as
a tool to assess tourism sustainability” Ecological
Economics 43, 199-/211